At War with Teflon
IR Decoy Flares most of which contain 30%-40% of Teflon in the
by Guy Cramer
August 11, 2005
To fully understand this in-depth paper it is recommended that you first read the public paper PTFE Free?
Is there a connection between Gulf War Illness and Teflon (PTFE) vapors from high heat sources?
Only after the conflict in the early 90’s when soldiers began to show similar symptoms, was it thought that coalition soldiers may have been exposed to a chemical or biological weapon release by Iraqi forces although this was later ruled out when the locations of the effected soldiers in the region were retraced and found that soldiers with symptoms were not all located in any one area but across the different regions in the Middle East, some soldiers with ailments didn’t even serve in this theater of operations.
Many scientists believe that Gulf War Syndrome is psychosomatic, however at least 15% of the reported cases are of unknown origin and seem to have similar symptoms of varying degrees as their symptoms can’t be explained to natural ailments which will affect the general population.
New information in the year 2000 indicates objective evidence from brain scans performed on 12 veterans with severe cases of the syndrome found brain cell losses of between 10 percent and 25 percent in three regions deep inside the brain -- the basal ganglia in each hemisphere and the brain stem. Scans performed on healthy veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War were normal.
Gulf War Syndrome: Symptoms of Gulf War Illnesses (according to the American Legion)
In my initial research on heating Teflon we find that the detrimental side effects on animals have a few similarities to Gulf War Syndrome.
Bird deaths have been documented with heating generic PTFE to 396°F (202°C) due to “PTFE (Teflon) toxicosis.” Signs of PTFE poisoning in birds are lung congestion, fluid accumulation of the lung (edema), bleeding in the lung (hemorrhage), heart tissue death (necrosis of the atrial epithelium) and crystalline particulate deposition in certain lung cells (parenchyma). Autopsies also show brain hemorrhage, liver congestion, degeneration and necrosis; and heart muscle (myocardial) degeneration and necrosis.
Although there are some similarities, the effects on the soldiers was thought to be a chemical weapons release and although bird deaths have been studied in detail, the association of Teflon Toxosis is a stretch until we look further into the use of Teflon in the military and understand that at severe temperatures (above 800°F) Teflon gives off at least two chemicals known to be used in the past or present as chemical weapons agents.
Initially I suspected Teflon coated ammunition or Teflon in bore cleaner/weapons lubricant, as the bore of most weapons reach a maximum temperature of approximately 1700C (3092F) when in use. Internal parts and bolt assembly of some soldiers weapons are plated a nickel/PTFE self-lubricating, corrosion-resistant finish. However, there are units in the Army that fire a lot of ammo for training; At one time a single Special Forces unit was firing more rounds per year than the entire U.S. Marine Corps yet there were no indication of problems with Gulf War type illness. This could be due to the rapid cooling of the Bore temperature, still, Teflon or PTFE should have no place in items that surpass temperatures in excess of 400°F.
The U.S. Army goes through 1.2 Billion+ small-caliber ammunition bullets per year depending on combat conditions. To my knowledge most of these do not have a Teflon or PTFE coating.
I then began to focus on thermal protective coatings for military engines and weapons which use formulas that may contain a percentage of PTFE. These coatings may be found on gas turbine engine parts which can reach as high as 3500°F. The M1 Abrams Tank uses a gas turbine engine and the heat from the exhaust can melt the paint on a vehicle directly behind an M1. Most Helicopters use gas turbine engines. The hottest DuPont recommends for any PTFE product is called SilverStone Supra which is only 290°C / 550°F for maximum continuous use. The use of PTFE in these coatings is difficult to determine as the manufacturers claim there coatings are proprietary.
One side note on Global warming chemicals; if Teflon is heated to 1112°F it offgases perfluorobutane (PFB, Trade Name CEA-410) which has a long half-life in the upper atmosphere and has over 8,000 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide.
At 1202°F Teflon gives off Carbon tetrafluoride (CF4, perfluoromethane) with a global warming potential almost 6000 times higher than carbon dioxide, and can last in the environment for 50,000 years.
If our military and commercial Aircraft turbine engines are coated in a formula that contains PTFE and these engines are being heated above 1200°F, than they may be inadvertently providing global warning gases directly into the upper atmosphere where they do the most damage!
I then began to look for Teflon being used in Defense application ammunition and discovered that High-energy pyrotechnic compositions based on fluorocarbon-metal combustion chemistry of magnesium, Teflon® and Viton®, so-called MTV is applied in decoy flares, tracking flares, countermeasure torches, base bleed units, tracer units, igniters, solid rocket propellants, RAM propellants, incendiary devices and signaling applications. With the primary use in aircraft IR decoy flares where Teflon content is 30-40% of the composition of the explosive device.
Teflon (PTFE) is used in these applications as it is an exceptionally good oxidiser in composition designed for producing high radiation output in the IR region to act as a decoy for incoming heat seeking missiles. This is because the heat produced by the oxidation of magnesium with fluorine is 16.8 MJ/kg of Mg and is higher than that produced by the oxidation of magnesium with oxygen. The combustion of magnesium (Mg) with polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) is a typical example of rapid oxidation of magnesium with fluorine.
MTV starts burning at 1878F and reaches peak temperatures of:
MTV-1 US flare composition: Flame Temperature 2707K (Kelvin) = 2433C or 4412F
MTV-2 UK flare composition: Flame Temperature 2847K = 2573C or 4664F
MTV-3 US igniter composition: Flame Temperature 2476K = 2202C or 3997F
U.S. Air Force requirements for 2005 of the two main decoys; M206 and MJU7A/B IR Countermeasure Flares will require 132,602 KG (292,338 Lbs or 130.5 tons) of Teflon that will be used in the combustible process. These numbers don’t include other MTV decoy types or the requirements of the U.S. Army or Marines, or the many worldwide military forces which also use MTV flares.
Tactics have developed to drop flares even if there is no incoming threat or indication of tracking by the adversary. Close support helicopter and aircraft support for front lines troops and the large increase in shoulder launch heat seeking missiles or man-portable air defense missile systems (MANPADS), an estimated 500,000 MANPADS exist, over 55% of Military Aircraft losses over the past decade were due to IR missiles.
Could the proximity of MTV flare release to troops on the ground be enough to disperse detrimental quantities of PTFE chemical byproducts known to be harmful if inhaled in sufficient quantities? The gravity drop of flares combined with the wash from Helicopter rotors pushes these chemicals down towards the front lines of both sides in close combat conditions. A military cargo planes or airborne troop transports with back or side doors open could intake the MTV vapors from the aircraft’s own decoy release or those ahead of it in formation. Aircraft or Helicopter Gunships with open doors or outside air access could also see an increase in vapor intake.
Teflon produces the highest negative charge of all the triboelectric materials – it carries a polarized net charge on the negative side, this high electron count may allow the particles to repel each other and disperse more rapidly than would the vapors of other burning materials. The B2 Bomber is reported to incorporate and ion exhaust system which give the exhaust particles the same charge so they repel each other thus reducing the heat signature of the exhaust by 800 times over untreated exhaust. If there is a triboelectric effect on the MTV vapors, this can be both good and bad. The increased dispersal means that more troops may be inhaling harmful particulate; however they may not be inhaling lethal quantities of these MTV vapors if these vapors had stayed in a tight formation without the polarizing electric dispersal.
Further uses of Teflon in the Military in severe heat sources include using Teflon tape around the 120mm M865 discarding sabot training cartridge, which is one of two cartridges the troops frequently use for training on the M1 Abrams tank. The Bore temperature of the M1 exceeds Teflon tolerances.
The U.S. Army PEO Soldier Warrior program is considering low density aluminum/Teflon (Al/PTFE), as these non-explosive materials, broadly referred to as “Reactive Materials” (RM) are discontinuous composites. They do not detonate and can actually be used as a structural material (they are considered a flammable solid). Warhead cases fabricated from RMs throw fragments which can ignite upon target impact and release enormous energy and cause catastrophic damage (unlike conventional metal war head fragments that only penetrate the target). These next generation RMs which will provide lethality enhancements for many applications. These include: multip-purpose reactive fragments for application against UAV’s and other aircraft, and advanced thermobaric warheads (with enhanced blast/impulse) for shoulder-fired weapons, deep penetrators and advanced shaped charges against hard targets with behind armor effects. In addition, it is also important to enhance the lethal radius of explosive warheads with thermobaric fuels as well as provide an RF component to the fireball so that a multifunction warhead can disable electrics, and installations beyond the high-pressure regions.
The program will also develop new RMs to defeat of Chem/Bio targets in storage or in flight with the appropriate fireball properties including temperature, chemical activity and controlled peak pressure especially for targets in storage (high temperature to burn the agent, not detonate and spread the agent).
According to PEO Soldier “Specific items of interest and desirable properties of multipurpose RMs include high reaction temperatures (~4,000K)”
New Electro-Exploded Aluminum (ALEX) is being added to MTV flares to increased the burn rate and improved the IR signature so it matches better to the aircraft signature. These small aluminum particles coated with Teflon; stoichiometrically balanced so that upon detonation all the aluminum is converted to aluminum fluoride is known as the MTV/ALEX.
The U.S. Navy is testing high explosive Al-Teflon materials to characterize their support of ongoing Navy applications.
Below is an excerpt from a paper produced by the Environmental Working Group which reviewed 16 peer-reviewed studies detailing experiments conducted over the past 50 years, showing that heated Teflon decomposes to 15 types of toxic gases and particles.
Compare those results with these Gulf War Illness Symptoms: chronic fatigue, signs and symptoms involving skin (including skin rashes and unusual hair loss), headache, muscle pain, neurologic signs or symptoms (nervous system disorders which could manifest themselves in numbness in one's arm, for instance), neuropsychological signs or symptoms (including memory loss), signs or symptoms involving upper or lower respiratory system, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal signs or symptoms (including recurrent diarrhea and constipation), cardiovascular signs or symptoms, menstrual disorders.
The toxic particles and gases identified as Teflon offgas products, and the temperature at which they are first identified in the studies reviewed, are shown below, with toxicity information that is drawn primarily from high dose animal studies, the only source of information available for most of the chemicals:
1. 464°F - Ultrafine particulate matter : Teflon produces very small (ultrafine) particles which are very toxic, causing extreme lung damage to rats within 10 minutes of exposure. Longer exposures cause death. At higher temperatures, Teflon also produces toxic gases. Some scientists have found that the particles and gases together are responsible for Teflon's toxicity, perhaps because the gases adsorb to the particles, which because of their small size can lodge deep in the lower respiratory tract .
2. 680°F - Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) : The National Toxicology Program considers tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) to be a “reasonably anticipated” human carcinogen because it is known to cause cancer in laboratory animals, but has not been adequately studied in people. In rats, inhaled TFE causes tumors of the kidney tubules, liver, blood vessels in the liver and one form of leukemia (mononuclear). Mice that breath TFE develop tumors of the liver and tumors that develop in blood vessels in the liver or white blood cells .
3. 680°F - Hexafluoropropene (HFP) : In people, air exposure to fluorocarbons like HFP can lead to eye, nose and throat irritation; heart palpitations, irregular heart rate, headaches, light-headedness, fluid accumulation in the lung (edema) and possibly death. Long-term exposure in workers is associated with decreased motor speed, memory and learning .
In mice and rats, inhalation of hexafluoropropene (HFP) causes kidney lesions, decreased numbers of a type of immune cell (lymphocyte) and increased urination . HFP also causes increased numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in hamster ovaries .
HFP can also be added to pesticides as an “inert” ingredient , which does not mean that it is non-toxic, but only that is not the pesticide active ingredient. Another example of a pesticide inert ingredient is butyl benzyl phthalate, a chemical well known to cause serious birth defects of the male reproductive system in laboratory animals.
4. 680°F - Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) : Very few studies have looked at the toxicity of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), but those that have found decreased growth of fetal rat bone-forming cells (osteoblast) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes) , and neural tube defects in rat embryos at high concentrations . Other studies show that HCFC-123, a hydrofluorocarbon that breaks down into TFA, causes enlarged liver and decreased levels of glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol in adult animals. But, it is unclear whether these effects are due to HCFC-123 or a metabolite . A monkey study found the TFA concentration in the fetus was two to six times higher than in the mother’s blood following dosing with HCFC-123 .
The long-term environmental impacts of TFA are unknown, but it is extremely persistent and toxic to plants. TFA is also a breakdown product of many hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) used as replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are potent ozone depleters used in refrigeration systems, aerosols and other products. Recently, scientists have suggested that high levels of TFA in the environment could be partly due to heated Teflon and other fluoropolymers because measured environmental levels are higher than predicted, based on breakdown of HCFCs and HFCs alone .
5. 680°F - Difluoroacetic acid (DFA) : Very little is known about the toxicity of difluoroacetic acid (DFA), although kidney toxicity has been reported in rats .
6. 680°F - Monofluoroacetic acid (MFA, fluoroacetic acid or compound 1080) : Monofluoroacetic acid is extremely toxic, doses as low as 0.7 to 2.1 mg/kg can kill people . Initially, people report nausea, vomiting, numbness, tingling, anxiety, muscle twitching, low blood pressure and blurred vision. If exposure is high enough, people can have irregular heart rate (ventricular fibrillation), heart attacks, and severe convulsions leading to respiratory failure .
MFA quickly breaks down into a chemical called fluoroacetate. Sodium fluoroacetate was previously used as a powerful rodent killer (rodenticide). In the body, it breaks down into sodium and fluoroacetate, which is responsible for the toxicity. Sodium fluoroacetate kills rodents, and other animals, by inhibiting the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle which transforms energy found in food to energy the body uses. Sodium fluoroacetate also causes heart and respiratory failure, central nervous system depression and damage to the testes, including decreased sperm production .
7. 680°F - Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) : Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has recently come under significant EPA scrutiny. According to Stephen L. Johnson, Assistant Administrator of EPA's Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, the EPA" will be conducting its most extensive scientific assessment ever undertaken on this type of chemical". EPA is concerned about PFOA because it never breaks down in the environment, is found in the blood of over 92 percent of Americans, and is very toxic to rats and monkeys. PFOA causes four types of tumors in rats: liver, pancreas, mammary gland (breast) and testes. PFOA also decreases thyroid hormone levels, a known risk factor for impaired brain development, and delays sexual maturation in laboratory animals. PFOA is especially toxic to the young because it kills young rats at doses that do not kill parental animals. Industry scientists estimate that it takes 4.4 years for people to eliminate just half the amount of PFOA found in their bodies. EPA is taking a close look at PFOA because levels found in the blood of people are too close to levels in rat blood that harm the animals [19, 20].
8. 878°F - Silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) : Silicon tetrafluoride is a highly toxic, corrosive gas. In the lungs, moisture causes the silicon particles to separate, releasing toxic hydrofluoric acid and also coating the lung with silicon particles. Inhaling hydrofluoric acid can cause eye and throat irritation, cough, difficult breathing, bluish skin color caused by lack of oxygen, lung damage and fluid accumulation in the lung (edema). Long term exposure can cause weight loss, decreased numbers of red and white blood cells (anemia and leukopenia), discoloration of the teeth and abnormal thickening of the bone (osteosclerosis) 
9. 887°F - Perfluoroisobutene (PFIB) : Perfluoroisobutene (PFIB) is extremely toxic and inhalation can lead to fluid build up in the lung (edema), a condition that can lead to death. PFIB is listed in the Chemical Weapons Convention as a Schedule 2 compound . PFIB is about ten times more toxic than phosgene, a highly toxic corrosive gas also listed as a chemical weapon. In water, PFIB breaks down into hydrogen fluoride which is also very toxic (see below). Short-term symptoms of PFIB exposure in people include bad taste in mouth, nausea and weakness. Lung edema occurs about one to four hours after exposure, which is life-threatening in some cases, but in most people clears up in about 3 days .
10. 932°F - Carbonyl fluoride (COF2) : Breakdown of Teflon (PTFE) in air is the major source of carbonyl fluoride exposure . Carbonyl fluoride is the fluorine version of phosgene, a chlorinated chemical warfare agent. Carbonyl fluoride fumes can irritate eyes, ears and nose. More serious symptoms of exposure include chest pains, breathing difficulty, fluid accumulation in the lungs, weakness, liver damage and increased glucose levels. Because carbonyl fluoride breaks down into hydrogen fluoride and carbon dioxide, it causes many of the same toxic effects as hydrogen fluoride (see below) .
11. 932°F - Hydrogen fluoride (HF) : Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a toxic corrosive gas, and can cause death to any tissue it comes into contact with, including the lungs. The toxicity of HF is due to the fluoride ion and not the hydrogen ion. Breathing HF can cause severe lung damage, such as fluid buildup in the lungs (edema) and inflammation of lung passages (pneumonia) .
The fluoride ion (charged particle) is extremely toxic. It is a small ion and weak acid that diffuses quickly and can pass through tissues with relative ease. Fluoride ions inhibit cell respiration, decreasing production of ATP, the major form of chemical energy used by the body. Fluoride attracts cell membranes causing cells to die. The fluoride ion is negatively charged and naturally likes to react with positively charged ions in the body like calcium and magnesium. When fluoride and calcium bind, creating a “precipitate,” a life-threatening condition of decreased calcium (hypocalcemia) can occur. Left untreated, decreases in calcium (and magnesium) can cause abnormal heart rhythm leading to heart attack, muscle spasms and death. Calcium administration is the main treatment for HF poisoning .
12. 1112°F - Trifluoroacetic acid fluoride (CF3COF) : Trifluoroacetic acid fluoride is toxic, mostly because it breaks down into hydrogen fluoride, which is very toxic, and trifluoroacetic acid.
The few studies that have looked at the toxicity of TFA found decreased growth of fetal rat bone-forming cells (osteoblast) and cartilage cells (chondrocytes) , and neural tube defects in rat embryos at high concentrations . Other studies show that HCFC-123, a hydrofluorocarbon that breaks down into TFA, causes enlarged liver and decreased levels of glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol in adult animals, but it is unclear whether these effects are due to HCFC-123 or a metabolite . A monkey study found TFA in the fetus was two to six times higher than in the mother’s blood following dosing with HCFC-123, a hydrofluorocarbon that breaks down into TFA .
Fluoride ion (charged particle) is extremely toxic. It is a small ion and weak acid that diffuses quickly and can pass through tissues with relative ease. Fluoride ions inhibit cell respiration, decreasing production of ATP, the major form of chemical energy used by the body. Fluoride attracts cell membranes causing cells to die. The fluoride ion is negatively charged and naturally likes to react with positively charged ions in the body like calcium and magnesium. When fluoride and calcium bind, creating a “precipitate,” a life-threatening condition of decreased calcium (hypocalcemia) can occur. Left untreated, decreases in calcium (and magnesium) can cause abnormal heart rhythm leading to heart attack, muscle spasms and death. Calcium administration is the main treatment for HF toxicity .
13. 1112°F - Octafluorocyclobutane (OFCB) : Octaflurocyclobutane is a fluorine-containing gas that is used in the semiconductor industry, sold as Zyron 8020 by DuPont. According to DuPont, inhaling high levels of octafluorocyclobutane can cause heart beat irregularities, unconsciousness and death. People with pre-existing heart conditions may be extra vulnerable. Only a few toxicity studies in animals are available for octafluorocyclobutane. In one study, rats exposed to a one-time-only inhaled exposure of octafluorocyclobutane lost weight and had abnormal breathing. Dogs that inhaled high concentrations (10-25% air), and were dosed with the stimulant epinephrine, had heart problems. According to DuPont, tests for genetic damage in insects are “inconclusive” .
14. 1112°F - Perfluorobutane (PFB, Trade Name CEA-410) : As a global warming chemical, perfluorobutane has a long half-life in the upper atmosphere and has over 8,000 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide . Perfluorobutane is not as acutely toxic as other PTFE off-gases, but has not been tested for long-term effects.
15. 1202°F - Carbon tetrafluoride (CF4, perfluoromethane) : In addition to being a long-lived fluorinated Teflon “off-gas,” perfloromethane is used in the semiconductor industry, is a refrigerant and propellant and a byproduct of aluminum production. The U.S. government is encouraging these industries to decrease emissions of perfluoromethane because it is a potent greenhouse gas, with a global warming potential almost 6000 times higher than carbon dioxide, and can last in the environment for 50,000 years [30, 31]. In the past, perfluoromethane has been used in pesticides as an “inert” ingredient,  a label that has nothing to do with toxicity but only means the ingredient is not the main active pesticide.
Inhaling fluorinated hydrocarbons like carbon tetrafluoride can cause eye, ear and nose irritation; heart palpitations; irregular heart rate; headaches; confusion; lung irritation, tremors and occasionally coma .
References from the Environmental Working Group can be found below the main references at the end of the page.
Enough evidence exists to suggest their may be a link between Gulf War Illness and Teflon Vapor Inhalation (TVI) to warrant specific research to test veterans which show objective evidence of brain cell decay and try to identify toxins within their systems which could point toward the byproducts of TVI and this association of actual known effects rather than guesswork or ignorance that something may have occurred and is likely still occurring in combat and training conditions.
Teflon should be withdrawn from any weapons or products used in close proximity to soldiers or crews where the Teflon may heat above 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Specifically bore cleaner, coated internal gun parts, gas turbine parts and the combustion chamber area of internal combustion engines...
Alternative technology development to replace MTV decoys and “Reactive Materials” (RM) that require Teflon or telomers should be a global priority for the long term health benefit of those we ask to go into harms way!
Gulf War syndrome symptoms linked to brain damage http://archives.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/11/27/gulfwar.brain.reut/ and https://rense.com/general5/brain.htm
US army 'runs short of bullets' https://web.archive.org/web/20170910144312/http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3754307.stm
UCAS M54 Scout/Sniper Weapon System https://web.archive.org/web/20060513073526/http://matrix.dumpshock.com/raygun/firearms/sniper/m54a1.html
Magnesium/polytetrafluoroethylene tracer compositions. Flückiger R https://web.archive.org/web/20051126234924/http://www.ipsusa.org/11to20.htm
Electric match with epoxy coated fluorocarbon containing
United States Patent 4152988 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4152988.html
Infra-red tracking flare United States Patent 5679921 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5679921.html
Combustion of Magnesium/Polytetrafluoroethylene http://pdf.aiaa.org/jaPreview/JPP/1987/PVJAPRE22990.pdf
Thermochemistry and Kinetics Models for Magnesium/Teflon/Viton Pyrotechnic Compositions https://web.archive.org/web/20130626013734/http://www.dsto.defence.gov.au/publications/2201/DSTO-TR-0938.pdf
Protecting Big Birds: Georgia Tech Engineers Test New Flare Decoys on Military Aircraft http://gtresearchnews.gatech.edu/newsrelease/flares.htm
Aircraft Survivability Spring 2003 https://web.archive.org/web/20040728095651/http://www.bahdayton.com/surviac/PDF/AS_SPRING_2003.pdf
Magnesium, Teflon, Hytemp MTH https://web.archive.org/web/20040414054859/http://www.serdp.org/research/PP/PP-1240.pdf
M1 Abrams practice rounds https://web.archive.org/web/20041025074707/http://w4.pica.army.mil/voice2001/010511/sticky.htm
U.S. ARMY SUBMISSION OF PROPOSALS https://web.archive.org/web/20050822135721/http://www.dodsbir.net/solicitation/sbir043/army043.htm
What is Gore-tex®? https://web.archive.org/web/20060507082524/http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Teflon/Gore-tex4jun05.htm
How to Measure the Temperature Of a Speeding Bullet https://web.archive.org/web/20050206043509/http://www.indigosystems.com/PDF/articles/R&D_article.pdf
References from the Environmental Working Group:
 Clayton, JW. 1967. Fluorocarbon toxicity and biological activity. Fluorine Chemistry Reviews 1(2): 197-252.
 Blandford, TB., Seamon, PJ., Hughes, R., Pattison, M and Wilderspin, MP. 1975. A case of polytetrafluoroethylene poisoning in cockatiels accompanied by polymer fume fever in the owner. Vet Rec 96(8): 175-8.
 Zanen, AL and Rietveld, AP. 1993. Inhalation trauma due to overheating in a microwave oven. Thorax 48(3): 300-2.
 Seidel, WC., Scherer, KV, Jr.., Cline, D, Jr.., Olson, AH., Bonesteel, JK., Church, DF., Nuggehalli, S and Pryor, WA. 1991. Chemical, physical, and toxicological characterization of fumes produced by heating tetrafluoroethene homopolymer and its copolymers with hexafluoropropene and perfluoro(propyl vinyl ether). Chem Res Toxicol 4(2): 229-36.
 Johnston CJ, Finkelstein JN, Mercer P, Corson N, Gelein R, Oberdorster G. 2000. Pulmonary effects induced by ultrafine PTFE particles. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 168:208-15.
 Ellis DA, Mabury SA, Martin JW, Muir DC. 2001. Thermolysis of fluoropolymers as a potential source of halogenated organic acids in the environment. Nature 412:321-4.
 National Toxicology Program (NTP). 2002. 10th Report on Carcinogens. https://web.archive.org/web/20051029012224/http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/index.cfm?objectid=72016262-BDB7-CEBA-FA60E922B18C2540
 Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2003. Full record for 1,1,2,3,3,3 - hexafluoro-1-propene (CASRN: 116-15-4). Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Fluoroalkenes Test Results; Data submitted by DuPont on Hexafluoropropene (HFP). Office of Prevention, Pesticides & Toxic Substances Data Development (Testing) Policy Avialable online at http://www.epa.gov/oppt/chemtest/fluralke.htm
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). List of other (inert) pesticide ingredients. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/inerts/lists.html
 Cornish J, Callon KE, Lin CQ, Xiao CL, Mulvey TB, Cooper GJ, Reid IR. 1999. Trifluoroacetate, a contaminant in purified proteins, inhibits proliferation of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Am J Physiol 277:E779-83.
 Hunter ES, 3rd, Rogers EH, Schmid JE, Richard A. 1996. Comparative effects of haloacetic acids in whole embryo culture. Teratology 54:57-64.
 Buschmann J, Bartsch W, Dasenbrock C, Fuhst R, Pohlmann G, Preiss A, Berger-Preiss E. 2001. Cross-fostering inhalation toxicity study with HCFC-123 in lactating Sprague-Dawley rats. Inhal Toxicol 13:671-87.
 Cappon GD, Keller DA, Brock WJ, Slauter RW, Hurtt ME. 2002. Effects of HCFC-123 exposure to maternal and infant rhesus monkeys on hepatic biochemistry, lactational parameters and postnatal growth. Drug Chem Toxicol 25:481-96.
 Lantum HB, Baggs RB, Krenitsky DM, Anders MW. 2002. Nephrotoxicity of chlorofluoroacetic acid in rats. Toxicol Sci 70:261-8.
 Key BD, Howell RD, Criddle CS. 1997. Fluorinated organics in the biosphere. Environmental Science & Technology 31:2445-2454.
 Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2003. Full record for fluoroacetic acid (CASRN: 144-49-0). Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
 Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). 1991. Sodium Fluoroacetate (CASRN: 62-74-8). Available online at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0469.htm
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2003. Preliminary risk assessment of the developmental toxicity associated with exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts. March 17, 2003.
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2002. Revised draft hazard assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts, November 4, 2002. U.S. EPA Administrative Record AR226-1136.
 Arito, H and Soda, R. 1977. Pyrolysis products of polytetrafluoroethylene and polyfluoroethylenepropylene with reference to inhalation toxicity. Ann Occup Hyg 20(3): 247-55.
 Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2003. Full record for silicon tetrafluoride (CASRN: 7783-61-1). Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
 Waritz, RS. 1975. An industrial approach to evaluation of pyrolysis and combustion hazards. Environ Health Perspect 11: 197-202.
 United States Department of State and Department of Commerce. 2003. U.S. Chemical Weapons Convention Web Site. Site sponsored by the United States Department of State (DOS), Bureau of Arms Control and the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20051202000521/http://www.cwc.gov/
 Patocka J, Bajgar J. 1998. Toxicology of perfluroisobutene. The Applied Science and Analysis (ASA) newsletter ISSN 1057-9419 Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20050922041402/http://www.asanltr.com/ASANews-98/pfib.html
 Scheel, LD., Lane, WC and Coleman, WE. 1968. The toxicity of polytetrafluoroethylene pyrolysis products including carbonyl fluoride and a reaction product, silicon tetrafluoride. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 29(1): 41-8.
 Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2003. Full record for carbon difluoride (CASRN: 353-50-4). Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov
 International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). 1995. Hydrogen Fluoride (CASRN: 7664-39-3). Available online at http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/chemical/hydfluor.htm#PartTitle:1.%20%20%20%20NAME
 DuPont. 2002. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Zyron (octafluorocyclobutane CASRN 115-25-3). Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20051101202221/http://msds.dupont.com/msds/pdfs/EN/PEN_09004a2f800a5e88.pdf
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Global Warming Potentials of ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances) Substitutes. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/ozone/geninfo/gwps.html
 State Department. Mitigating climate change: methane and other greenhouse gas programs. Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20050621092930/http://www.state.gov/www/global/oes/97climate_report/part4b.html
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1998. Inert ingredients no longer used in pesticide products. Federal Register (Volume 63, Number 121):Page 34384-34390 Available online at https://web.archive.org/web/20091127014446/http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/1998/June/Day-24/p16571.htm
 Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). 2003. Full record for tetrafluoromethane (CASRN: 75-73-0). Available online at http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/
Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) and Viton (copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene) are trademarks of DuPont
This material is Copyright © 2005 by Guy Cramer, All Rights Reserved.
This material cannot be reproduced in any form without the expressed written permission of the Author. Whole Copies may be printed for personal use; no changes are to be made to the content, names or references.