A recent story indicates that the image on the shroud is also found on the opposite side of the cloth in the same places where the image is on the front, the opposite side was not available to view until 2002 http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/science/04/15/italy.shroud.reut/index.html
This would counter the belief that an artist painted or made the image from a person as it would likely appear only on one side, to reproduce the image on both sides by an artist would be highly unlikely as the artist would have to reproduce all the details in exact detail from the opposite side. If you were using a model and tried to do the same on the opposite side the left would be the right and visa-versa.
Why does the main scientific community still think of the shroud as a forgery? Carbon Dating has shown it is not as old as claimed however, as I stated back in 1997 (see original paper below) there is one thing that can account for the image and the incorrect carbon dates and that is ionization. Now with the discovery of the image on both sides does this strengthen or weaken this theory, it strengthens it as ionization would travel through linen as it is a natural fiber that has a charge close to neutral, so it wouldn't impede heavy ionization through the cloth.
Given the pollens from the Middle East found on the linen, the Coins over the
eyes on the image (a practice used at the time to keep the eyes closed) from
that region which are dated to the time of Jesus and this new information of the
double sided image, there is a higher probability that the Shroud may be an
actual burial shroud from the time of Jesus.
To see the original paper in its entirety go here as the following is the final third of the original paper
Ionization and the Shroud
By Guy Cramer
These above scientific findings makes one wonder why the carbon dating and the data do not match up. I do believe that carbon dating is accurate and that the tests were done truthfully. I also believe we have run into one of the only problems that can throw off carbon dating, ionization.
The findings below to some scientists may look very biased for Christianity. To openly look at the ionization theory one must be open to the possibility of the resurrection. It matters little to me and I hope I can speak for most Christians, when I say, It doesn't matter whether the shroud is genuine or not. This theory does not state that the shroud is genuine but it offers possible answers to the many questions that still remain.
Before we get into the effects on the Shroud lets look at some little known data about death:
Physicist Janusz Slawinki, writing in the "Journal of Near Death Studies", found that a dying organism emits a "light shout" more then a thousand times greater than their usual resting state. As cells die and genetic material begins to unfold as it does at death, a powerful charge of electromagnetic energy is given off. 6
This powerful charge is released as ionization, which can be measured with instrumentation.
With this ionization necessary to burn the image in to the linen, being far greater then any organism is capable of, then we must assume the Shroud was produced with modern day technology or is the actual burial linen of Jesus, and that his claims about being the Son of God are true.
Above average ionization of the shroud provides us with a medical and biological answer to what could have caused the image of the shroud. Ionization will also result in oxidation, dehydration and conjugation of the polysaccharide structure of the microfibrils in the linen itself. So we have a physical and chemical answer.
Ionization could also burn the image on the Turin Shroud only on the peaks of the fibers as seen on the linen.
It could also create an effect with the linen which we would see a photo negative image when photographed
If Jesus died on the cross, why would the image show up on the burial linen which was placed over him after he died? Simple; he was resurrected as the New Testament says and The Old Testament prophesied. Jesus provided Thomas with proof.
Now Thomas (called Didymus), one of the Twelve, was not with the disciples when Jesus came. So the other disciples told him, "We have seen the Lord!"
But he said to them, "unless I see the nail marks in his hands and put my finger where the nails were, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe it."
A week later his disciples were in the house again, and Thomas was with them. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and said, "Peace be with you!" Then he said to Thomas , "Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe."
Thomas said to him, "My Lord and my God!"
Then Jesus told him, Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed."(John 20:24-29)
The shroud may provide us with proof. If the body gives off ionization when it dies what happens when life comes back into the body? There must also be ionization involved.
The image produced on the shroud needed to be much more powerful then the "light shout" emitted by a normal dying organism. But remember we are dealing with the Son of God. He declares "While I am in the world, I am the light of the world"(John 9:5)
We also see the following example in Jesus of the usual resting state of normal electromagnetic energy that we all emit, was not the same in Jesus as others:
A large crowd followed and pressed around him. And a woman who was there who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years. She had suffered a great deal under the care of many doctors and had spent all she had, yet instead of getting better she grew worse. When she heard about Jesus, she came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak, because she thought, "If I just touch his cloth, I will be healed." Immediately her bleeding stopped and she felt in her body that she was freed from her suffering.
At once Jesus realized that power had gone out from him. He turned around in the crowd and asked, "Who touched my cloth?"
"You see the people crowding against you," his disciples answered, "and yet you can ask, 'Who touch me?'"
But Jesus kept looking around to see who had done it. Then the woman, knowing what had happened to her, came and fell at his feet and, trembling with fear, told him the whole truth. He said to her, "Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace and be freed from your suffering.(Mark 5:24-34)
What caused the demon possessed to recognize Jesus as the Son of God when others couldn't? They could see the light which he could not hide from them.
Just then a man in their synagogue who was possessed by an evil spirit cried out, "What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are-the Holy One of God!"
"Be quiet!" said Jesus sternly. "Come out of him" The evil spirit shook the man violently and came out of him with a shriek.(Mark 1:23-34)
That evening after sunset the people brought to Jesus all the sick and demon-possessed. The whole town gathered at the door, and Jesus healed many who had various diseases. He also drove out many demons, but he would not let the demons speak because they knew who he was.(Mark 1:32-34)
There are many examples of the possessed recognizing Jesus in the New Testament.
Why would ionization of the shroud throw out the carbon dating?
First lets look at the carbon dating procedure.
-The material to be tested is cleaned and put in a tube with granules of copper oxide and vacuum sealed.
-The tube is then placed in an oven for two hours at 950 degrees. This turns the carbon into carbon dioxide gas.
-The tube is then placed into pressure tubing and broken.
-The gas is then frozen into pure white solid carbon dioxide.
-Heating this with a catalyst produces pure carbon powder.
-The pure carbon is placed on a copper disk and pressed onto the disk to give it a flat surface.
-The disk is then bombarded by Cesium atoms to give off negative carbon ions.
-These ions are then drawn into the 4.5 million volt tandem accelerator.
-The ions come out the other end of the accelerator as positive ions.
-The positive carbon 14 ions are then deflected into an ion counter.
-The voltage on the tandem accelerator is switched to get carbon 13 and carbon 12 ions from the same carbon powder to also be counted.
-It is the ratio of these 3 ions in separate counters that will give the computer an accurate time measurement +/- 50 years.
In the case of the shroud linen the results at three different labs produced similar results. A 95% probability of 1260-1390AD.
Assuming the material has already been ionized (which is the main principle for carbon dating),then the method of carbon dating will give an incorrect answer to the actual date of origin for the shroud.
We may be able to extract out of the data how much ionization took place to burn the image on the shroud. What would this tell us? That the mans image in the Shroud is in fact the Son of God. The voltage to produce this image may be far greater then any organism is capable of. Since we see no entrance areas in the linen for lightning to have struck the body, having produced the image, we must conclude that the image was created through the process of resurrection.
1. Sunfellow, David "The Shroud of Turin" (New Heaven, New Earth) http://nen.sedona.net/nhne/shroud.html
The information in this summary was gathered from the following
sources: An article called, "The Shroud of Turin" by Richard Walters,
a recent interview with Paul Maloney, General Projects Director of
ASSIST (The Association of Scientists and Scholars International for
the Shroud of Turin), ASSIST NEWSLETTERS, an in depth story
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ran in 1980, and various news clippings.
Although it seems unlikely that the Catholic Church will allow new
testing to be done on the Shroud anytime soon, scientists from around
the world, continue to study, test, debate and ponder the Shroud's
mysteries. For more information on the Shroud of Turin, visit Barrie
M. Schwortz's SHROUD OF TURIN WEB SITE
(http://www.shroud.com/). Barrie's site contains full-color pictures of
the Shroud, links to other Shroud related sites and current Shroud
research and news. Barrie was the Official Documenting
Photographer for THE SHROUD OF TURIN RESEARCH PROJECT,
INC., (STURP), the team that completed the first extensive scientific
examination of the Shroud of Turin in 1978.
Copyright © 1995 By David Sunfellow,
Published By NewHeavenNewEarth / firstname.lastname@example.org
Please feel free to pass this special NHNE article on to as many people as you like. If you do share this article with others, we ask that you reproduce it in its entirety (including all credits, copyright notices and addresses), not alter its contents in any way, and pass it on to others free of charge.
2. Walsh,Bryan "The Shroud of Turin" http://members.aol.com/bjw1106/shr-tur.htm
3.The Shroud Of Turin (History's Mysteries), CTC 1994 for The Learning Channel
4. the Byzantine Coin Page (Collectors' Coin Universe)
by Chris Connell
5. Walsh,Bryan "The Shroud of Turin" http://members.aol.com/bjw1106/shr-tur.htm
6. Morse, Melvin, M.D. "Tranformed by the Light", Ballantine Books 1992, p.155-156
The information presented by Guy Cramer is Copyright © 1997, Trinity Consulting, All Rights Reserved.